"Backward" Curriculum Design and Assessment: What Goes Around Comes Around, or Haven't We Seen This Before?. Not a MyNAP member yet? [11], Most models of instructional design follow the core elements found in the ADDIE model of design: analyze (designer develops an understanding of the desired outcomes and the learner's knowledge and skills); design (documents learning outcomes, assessment tools, exercise and content); develop (creating the learning materials); implement (the created learning materials are distributed to the learners); and evaluate (the effectiveness of the learning materials is assessed and documented). The model includes the following components: Both the Dick and Carey model and the backward design model are goal and objective oriented; assessment is created based on learning objectives and goals, and instruction is created based on evaluation and assessment. Stage 3: Plan learning experiences and instruction. This is especially important when the assessment carries high stakes for students, teachers, or schools. Doing so enables the teacher and staff developer to work together to interpret classroom events in light of various ideas about teaching, learning, and subject matter. At this stage, you may identify Continued Professional Development (CPD) and curriculum support needs for staff. The common student misconception that equilibrium means equal amounts in each container is challenged as students develop an understanding of the principle of equilibrium. Assessment is a critical aspect of effective teaching and improved education (NBPTS, 1994; NCTM, 1995; NRC, 2001a; Shepard, 2000). Other Opportunities and Approaches to Advanced Study, 7. For example, the term denotes the likelihood that a particular student or group of students would earn the same score if they took the same test again or took a different form of the same test. Settings such as summer workshops free teachers from the daily demands of having to think about the immediate needs of their students and classrooms. Students are not as likely to become so lost in the factual detail of a unit that they miss the point of studying the original topic. Similarly, it leaves little room for improvisation. Curriculum for understanding represents more than a collection of activities or bits of information: it provides for the holistic performance of meaningful, complex tasks in increasingly challenging environments (Resnick and Klopfer, 1989). "What is backward design?" The teacher demonstrates color changes in a reversible reaction. It does not fit in well in a constructivist ontology where the multifaceted nature of each student warrants consideration in planning. International Standard Book Number: 978-0-615-97442-2 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this book are those of The MITRE Corporation and should not be construed as an official government position, policy, or decision, unless designated by other documentation. Although backward design is based on the same components of the ADDIE model, backward design is a condensed version of these components with far less flexibility. Understanding assessment results requires that the user draw inferences from available data and observations that are supported by the assessment. Curricula may differ from country to country and further still between provinces or states within a country. End-of-course tests are too broad and too infrequently administered to provide information that can be used by teachers or students to inform decisions about teaching or learning on a day-to-day basis. A second approach is to have teachers bring experiences from their classrooms, such as samples of students’ work or videotapes of classroom activities, to workshops. These three Backward design; Forward thinking. This model assumes the relative level of students, yet students may have the capacity to go beyond desired results. What is backward design?. They must understand the content and the process dimensions that are valued in the discipline and then design the test to sample among a broad range of these dimensions (Millman and Greene, 1993). Using multiple measures rather than relying on a single test score provides a richer picture of what students know and are able to do. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Specifically, students will need to know about different food groups, human nutritional needs (carbohydrates, proteins, sugars, vitamins, minerals etc. Thousands of educators across the country use the Understanding by Design (UbD ®) framework, created by the late Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, to get a handle on standards, align programs to assessments, and guide teachers in implementing a standards-based curriculum that leads to student understanding and achievement. Reliability generally refers to the stability of results. Incorporates language, procedures, and models of inquiry and truth verification that are consistent with the accepted practice of experts in the domain. In the more linear backward design model, the steps are non-flexible which means that skipping or changing steps is not an option. A teacher uses a check sheet during microscope work to assess skills. Thus the success of current reform efforts—in secondary mathematics and science, as well as other curricular areas—in fostering learning with understanding depends on creating opportunities for teachers’ continual learning and providing sufficient professional development resources to exploit these opportunities (Darling-Hammond, 1996, 1999b; Sykes, 1996). It is critical to recognize that programs for advanced study share many of the objectives of other programs in the same discipline; these design principles, therefore, also apply to the design and development of mathematics and science courses at all levels. The design of such tasks is complex, requiring teachers to take account of students’ knowledge and interests, of the ways students learn particular mathematical or scientific ideas, and of common points of confusion and misconceptions about those ideas (Borko et al., 2000). Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. BOX 7-2 Principles of Instruction for Understanding. Stenhouse, L. (1975) An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development, London: Heinemann. High-stakes tests are linked to the curriculum and influence its design, but they are Since 1998 we've helped behavior analysts become Board certified. Partial credit for various subtasks and many possible paths to a successful outcome, Clear relationships between the decisions and the data. It also examines two of the core issues surrounding these programs: they can have a profound impact on other components of the education system and participation in the programs has become key to admission at selective institutions of higher education. It also should reflect the teacher’s own strengths and interests and consideration of available local resources. Sample Individual Professional Development Plan (IPDP) Goals 7/2015 SMART Goals Examples of SMART goals are provided below. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press; 2009. and receives royalties from … (2004). Designed to assess understanding that is both qualitative and quantitative in nature and to provide multiple modalities with which a student can demonstrate learning. In traditional curriculum planning, a list of content that will be taught is created and/or selected. Examples of Class Design Frameworks. Teachers use this knowledge to listen carefully to students and examine their work in order to identify understandings and misunderstandings and frame appropriate learning activities for each student (NCTM, 1991; NRC, 1996). Created by: Jenna, Knapp, Aaron Hart Special Contributions: Deedi Boland, Charla Tedder (Parker) Krahnke Design: Jennifer Truong & Aaron Hart Badminton can be played as a recreational or competitive sport throughout an individual’s lifetime. The higher the stakes of the test, the more critical is this research and the more frequently it must be reviewed (AERA/APA/NCME, 1999). This section reviews design principles for two types of assessments: those that measure student achievement at the end of a program of study, such as AP Physics, and those that are used by teachers to provide feedback to students, guide instruction, and monitor its effects throughout the course of study (see Box 7-4 for a summary of the design principles for assessment). Students who elect to practice in the health arena, apply the knowledge and skills of advanced social work practice to build and work effectively with multi-disciplinary teams that include physicians, nurses, dentists, psychiatrists and other health care professionals. Is designed to provide the appropriate degree of explicitness for the situation and the abilities of the learners. The class develops a rubric that will be applied to a unit examination essay question comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structures. The complex, authentic, multidimensional learning opportunities that could be designed following the committee’s model could make it possible for all children to discover and use their unique strengths to engage in learning at a deep conceptual level. Gustafson, K.L. A curriculum for understanding takes the shape of topical strands that are highly interconnected in ways that are consistent with the knowledge structure used by experts in tackling complex tasks in their discipline (Marin, Mintzes, and Clavin, 2000).1. Doing so is complicated, however, by the fact that an assessment can only sample from a large universe of desirable learning outcomes and thus can tap but a partial range of desirable cognitions. The 5E model was developed by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. Uses with teachers’ instructional strategies and assessment practices that teachers are expected to use with students. Effective assessments for measuring students’ learning with understanding in advanced mathematics and science are: Based on a model of cognition and learning that is derived from the best available understanding of how students represent knowledge and develop competence in a domain. It should be clear that what is being validated is not the test itself, but each inference drawn from the test score for each specific use to which the test results are put. and informative feedback to students (Edmondson, 2000; Rice, Ryan, and Samson, 1998). Dempsey (Eds. Educational assessments can be designed for any number of purposes, from conducting large-scale evaluations of multiple components of educational programs to measuring individual students’ mastery of a specified skill. [16], Here is a practical example of a 5th grade teacher developing a three-week unit on nutrition:[21]. (2009). [6], Instructional design is the design of learning experiences and instructions for the acquisition of knowledge and skill by students. There are numerous ways to accomplish this, with advantages for different components of teacher learning (Putnam and Borko, 1997). For questions about your results please contact the VCAA on: Tel: +61 3 9032 1629 Email: vcaa@education.vic.gov.au For enquiries regarding Consideration of Educational Disadvantage, please call: (03) 9637 3877 or 1800 653 080 (free call) until 29 January 2021. Treats teachers as active learners who construct their own understandings by building on their existing knowledge and beliefs. Teachers need to form learning communities in which they can explore problems of practice that occur during the school year and engage in continuing discussion to enrich their knowledge of subject matter, students, and teaching. Reliability also encompasses the consistency with which students perform on different questions or sections of a test that measure the same underlying concept, for example, energy transfer. An appreciation of the distinctive features of disciplines, however, should not lead to their isolation from each other or from the everyday world. The development of educational programs that foster learning with conceptual understanding, as outlined in this chapter, could be seen as idealization that cannot be achieved in practice; the committee sees it as an imperative. Teaching methods will include direct instruction, inductive methods, cooperative learning, and group activities. Is an ongoing, long-term effort spanning teachers’ professional lives. We’ve achieved this by applying the scientific principles and methods of applied behavior analysis to the development of instructional content and software. This observation is particularly true when one is implementing well-structured external programs that build on the regular curriculum already in place at a school. If professional development is to support meaningful change in teaching and teachers, it must address teachers’ existing knowledge and beliefs, just as teachers are expected to address prior knowledge in their students in order to promote learning with understanding. Backward design is a method of designing an educational curriculum by setting goals before choosing instructional methods and forms of assessment.Backward design of curriculum typically involves three stages: Identify the results desired (big ideas and skills) What the … This module prepares students with the confidence and skill needed to be active whenever a Concept maps, such as those discussed in Box 6-2 in Chapter 6, are one example of an assessment strategy that can be used to provide timely. A curriculum is based on benchmark standards deemed important by the government. Thus, the key to implementing the committee’s vision of learning with deep conceptual understanding is having highly skilled teachers who can effectively put into practice the strategies suggested earlier in the discussion of instruction for understanding. Thus the test results neither overestimate nor underestimate the knowledge and skills of members of a particular group, for example, females. The term "backward design" was introduced to curriculum design in 1998/99 by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins (Understanding by Design). An integration of "backwards planning" unit design with the "two step" lesson planning framework. Many of the models are quite similar in that they essentially all address the same four components in some form or another: the learners; the learning objectives; the method of instruction; and some form of assessment or evaluation. A statement of objectives is used to indicate the kinds of changes in the student to be brought about so that instructional activities can be planned and developed in a way likely to attain these objectives.[9]. Desired results may fall short of student potential. Such experiences prompt the learner to see past the surface features of a problem to deeper, more fundamental principles. A mathematics or science curriculum for advanced study that promotes learning with understanding: Structures the concepts, factual content, and procedures that constitute the knowledge base of the discipline around the organizing principles (big ideas) of the domain. It's like getting a new pair of lenses that make teaching a lot more exciting and help us look forward into the next century. Ready to take your reading offline? Because knowledge is integrally connected with the contexts in which it is acquired and used, teacher learning ought to be situated in practice. 248 + viii pages. Student misconceptions about the nature of equilibrium remain uncovered and unchallenged. tise; expert knowledge is not simply a list of facts and formulas (Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, 1981; Kozma and Russell, 1997; NRC, 2000b; see also Chapter 6, this volume). This model is purposely not designed to be followed in a linear step-by-step fashion, but rather is circular so that it is possible to re-trace steps once data have been collected and analyzed.[13]. When curriculum is designed to build on students’ experiences, teachers are able to engage students’ prior knowledge, expose and restructure their knowledge and remediate misconceptions, and enhance motivation to learn. Lifelong learning experiences can provide teachers with the opportunity to continually consider and contribute to the evolving knowledge base of teaching and learning (NRC, 1996). SOURCES: Adapted from ACS (1997); NRC (1996); NSTA (1996). is an education approach in preschool education, and its qualities, the curriculum and curriculum development process, the rol es of t eachers and students in it. We suggest that every educator include at least one broad SMART goal on their IPDP similar to the one below. Many curricula and instructional materials, however, are not designed to help students conditionalize their knowledge. (Fullan, 1991, p. 315). For this reason, the curriculum needs to specify clearly the appropriate balance between breadth and depth of coverage in terms of student learning outcomes. (n.d.) Retrieved 13 June 2012 from, Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. Test design and construction includes consideration of which forms of complex thinking fairly reflect important aspects of domain proficiency. For the master teacher, it would be worthwhile to move past fixed goals and establish processes and student choices that lead them to relevant yet indeterminate locations. Process models originate with Laurence Stenhouse - in his 1975 book An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development, he argued that there were three aspects to curricula: the curriculum should contain planning aspects: content, sequence, and strategies relevant to teaching that content in … Such change cannot occur unless teachers are given ample opportunity and support for continual learning through sustained professional development, as, TABLE 7-3 Characteristics of Assessment for Understanding, Summative examinations—unit tests and the final examination, Formative assessments—ongoing assessment of teaching and learning, High-stakes tests that impact college entrance and placement and drive unintended program change, Learning assessments that drive program changes in the direction of the goal for advanced studies, Assessments that measure students’ ability to recall facts, Assessments that evaluate understanding and reasoning, Assessment as something that is done to students and that provides information to teachers about students, Students participating in developing and analyzing the results of assessments, Private communication of students’ ideas and understandings to the teacher/examiner, Classroom discourse including argument and explanation of students’ ideas and understandings. Thus, lack of concern with social and cultural differences within the classroom. LeChatelier’s principle is reviewed, and students predict equilibrium shifts on the basis of hypothetical changes in reactants, products, and conditions. They “lend themselves to multiple solution methods, frequently involve multiple representations, and usually require students to justify, conjecture, and interpret” (Silver and Smith, 1996, p. 24). We do this by helping educators and organizations apply insights from the learning sciences and leading-edge practices to educational design and … Graduation Program will complete three provincial assessments. Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. Accomplishing this complex endeavor requires a qualified teacher. Orchestrates classroom discourse so that students can make conjectures, present solutions, and argue about the validity of claims, thus helping them explore old understandings in new ways, reveal misconceptions, and generalize and transfer their learning to new problems or more robust understandings. While each of the four key elements is addressed separately here, in practice they work together synergistically and need to be aligned in mutually supportive ways. If teachers view themselves as agents of change, responsible for improving teaching and learning in their schools, they may be more likely to take advantage of high-quality professional development. (1956) describes learning as having three domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Questions about your VCE or VCAL results? Put understanding first. The changes in education proposed here represent a significant departure from current practice in most schools and from most of the preparation and professional development that teachers and school administrators have received. Table 7-4 summarizes the emphases of professional development programs that promote understanding. To meet those needs, teachers must constantly revise their practice and reflect on teaching and learning. Backward design of curriculum typically involves three stages:[1][2][3]. Teachers are members of learning communities. Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students. The Kemp instructional design model is a holistic form of instructional design, taking into account all factors of the learning environment. TABLE 7-4 Characteristics of Effective Teacher Professional Development, Continuous ongoing, connected learning experiences, Transmission of knowledge and skills by lecture, Isolation of teachers, classrooms, and disciplines, Interdisciplinary inquiry that extends beyond the classroom, Separation of science/mathematics content knowledge and teaching knowledge, Integration of theory and practice in school settings, Individual learning, as teachers of an advanced subject are physically and temporally isolated from other teachers of the same advanced subject, Collegial and collaborative learning in a professional community and time for teachers to interact during the school day and year, Teacher as technician and consumer of knowledge, Teacher as reflective practitioner and producer of knowledge, Teacher as source and facilitator of change, Reliance on external or internal expertise only, Long-term, coherent plans incorporating 1- to 2-week summer institutes with follow-up during the school year. IUPUI MSW Curriculum Requirements. Example: Students participate in varied assessment activities throughout the unit. Box 7-5 summarizes the design principles for professional development of teachers. Meaningful assessment also includes evidence of understanding that is qualitative and quantitative in nature, and provides multiple modalities and contexts for demonstrating learning. RECOMMENDED SMART GOAL State the Action you will take Describe an Area of Focus for the Learning It is helping students take control of their own learning. Provides multiple perspectives on students as learners. If end-of-course tests are to measure important aspects of domain proficiency, test makers need to have a sophisticated understanding of the target domain. In. Most teachers, even those regarded as excellent, would have to change their beliefs and practices significantly to teach in a manner consistent with the committee’s conceptual framework (Haidar, 1997; Jones et al., 1998; Ryder, Leach, and Driver, 1999; Schoon and Boone, 1998; Southerland and Gess-Newsom, 1999). Moreover, professional development instructors are role models who contribute to teachers’ evolving visions of what and how to teach. Ross, A. Childre, A., Sands, J.R., Pope, S.T. Recent commentary on the importance of curriculum by Ofsted’s Chief Inspector, Amanda Spielman, has led to a renewed debate about the complexity of curriculum design.. Before a school can begin to design its curriculum, it’s important that its principles and the purpose of those principles are agreed and can be articulated by all stakeholders. The study is a review of the literature on the basic education (k-12) curriculum specifically the senior high school (SHS) of the Philippines, Japan, and the US. The teacher schedules 3 days for activities that focus on this knowledge. Students will explore a range of materials in the context of structure, form and surface. provide one model for multifaceted professional development. Curriculum Development for Medical Education: A Six-Step Approach. Teachers who know their curriculum and lesson trajectory that was led by Backwards Design may find that over adherence depletes their ability to focus on the learning experience and, with students or colleagues, induce new routes towards learning goals. It is important to note, however, that assessment does not exist in isolation, but is closely linked to curriculum and instruction (Graue, 1993). Example: During a unit on cell structure, biology students participate in lecture/discussions, complete reading assignments, use electron micrographs to examine cell ultrastructure, and conduct related practical investigations involving microscopic examination of a variety of cell types and scale drawings. Backward design challenges "traditional" methods of curriculum planning. ), and about what foods provide these needs. Wiggins and McTighe (2008) also utilize the "WHERE" approach during the assessment stage of the process. Of primary importance if a test is to support learning is that students be given timely and frequent feedback about the correctness of their understandings; in fact, providing such feedback is one of the most important roles for assessment. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. [15] It is very systemic and also follows the same basic design pattern of the ADDIE model. All rights reserved. This way they can achieve the appropriate learning outcomes or create a plan or strategy for improvement. Such a curriculum emphasizes depth of understanding over breadth of coverage. Fairness implies that a test supports the same inferences from person to person and group to group. Teaching for conceptual understanding in advanced mathematics and science courses: Maintains students’ focus on the central organizing themes and underlying concepts of the discipline. The deep disciplinary understanding of experts encompasses a vast amount of knowledge, but generally only a subset of that knowledge is used in the solution of any given problem. What teachers know and believe will influence their interpretation and enactment of new ideas for teaching. In addition, teachers should expect to receive a strong foundation of pedagogical content knowledge from effective professional development. This chapter explores the implications of those principles for the intentional and systemic design of four key elements of the educational system—curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development—to promote learning with understanding within the context of advanced study. The 3DDA Curriculum Area is ideal for those with a passion for making. More specifically, we use goals and specific measurable objectives to teach the discriminations necessary to ensure that those objectives are learned. Engages students in worthwhile tasks that provide access to powerful mathematical and scientific ideas and practices; moves students to see past the surface features of problems to the deeper, more fundamental principles; and develops their conceptual understanding and skills. Such knowledge might include instructional and classroom organization strategies, materials and resources. Rather, strong curriculum design emphasizes interdisciplinary connections, integration, and authenticity in the relationship between learning in and out of school. Links new knowledge to what is already known by presenting concepts in a conceptually and logically sequenced order that builds upon previous learning within and across grade levels. To promote understanding, explicit instruction in metacognition should be integrated into the curriculum. Uses, Misuses, and Unintended Consequences of AP and IB, Appendix A: Overview of Panel Findings and Recommendations, Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members. Learning experiences are worthwhile when they represent concepts and procedures; foster skill development, reasoning, and problem solving; and help students make connections among mathematical and scientific ideas and to real-world applications (NCTM, 1991). It is well known that such assessments, even coming after the end of instruction, inevitably have strong anticipatory effects on instruction and learning. Graduation assessments are changing to align with the new curriculum. The more aligned the institutional and social context for learning is with the committee’s conceptual framework for analyzing and designing advanced study, the more likely it is that the innovations we advocate will be sustained over time and enhance student achievement. [4] In backward design, the educator starts with goals, creates or plans out assessments and finally makes lesson plans. Backward design is a method of designing an educational curriculum by setting goals before choosing instructional methods and forms of assessment. See http://www.nbpts.org (November 22, 2001). Helpful overview of the history of curriculum development in Britain. In addition, the interrelationships among topics should be clearly articulated to provide a framework teachers can use in developing and setting goals for their students’ learning (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2001). Jones, K.A., Vermette, P.J., Jones, J.L. One of the most important factors influencing student achievement, if not the most important, is teacher expertise (see Shepard, 2000; National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, 2000; National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2000a; Darling-Hammond, 2000). development, and mathematics. Since intrinsic motivation is self-sustaining, instruction should be planned so as to maximize the opportunity for developing a strong intrinsic motivation to learn. A community of learners encourages students to take academic risks by providing opportunities for them to make mistakes, obtain feedback, and revise their thinking while learning from others with whom they are engaged in inquiry and cooperative problem-solving activities.