One meta-analysis of 20 clinical trials compared the effects of 0.5 mcg (20 IU)/day to 1,250 mcg (50,000 IU)/week vitamin D supplementation for 2–6 months with those of placebo on glycemic control in 2,703 adults from around the world who had diabetes [143]. [, Song Z-y, Yao Q, Zhuo Z, Ma Z, Chen G. Circulating vitamin D level and mortality in prostate cancer patients: A dose-response meta-analysis. [, Uday S, Hogler W. Nutritional rickets and osteomalacia in the twenty-first century: Revised concepts, public health, and prevention strategies. attributes allow the programmer to best decide the safety-efficiency The effect of vitamin D supplementation on lower-extremity power and function in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Food Bone mineral density, bone mass, and fracture risk are correlated with serum 25(OH)D levels in White Americans and Mexican Americans, but not in Black Americans [14,83]. [. In fact, 2013–2016 NHANES data showed that 92% of men, more than 97% of women, and 94% of people aged 1 year and older ingested less than the EAR of 10 mcg (400 IU) of vitamin D from food and beverages [41]. However, a meta-analysis of 12 vitamin D supplementation trials (including 5 in which body composition measurements were primary outcomes) found that vitamin D supplements without calorie restriction did not affect body weight or fat mass when the results were compared with those of placebo [154]. Nutrients 2020; 12, 2237; doi:10.3390/nu12082237. [, McDuffie JR, Calis KA, Booth SL, Uwaifo GI, Yanovski JA. Effect of monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease in the Vitamin D Assessment Study: A randomized clinical trial. Neurology 2012;79:2140-5. Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016;101:394-415. Overall, the risk of CVD events was 10% lower for each 25 nmol/L (10 ng/mL) increase in serum 25(OH)D. Another large observational study that followed 247,574 adults from Denmark for 0–7 years found that levels of 25(OH)D that were low (about 12.5 nmol/L [5 ng/mL]) and high (about 125 nmol/L [50 ng/mL]) were associated with a greater risk of mortality from CVD, stroke, and acute myocardial infarction [121]. However, clinical trials do not support a cause-and-effect relationship between vitamin D and weight loss. However, a post hoc analysis showed a 62% lower incidence of diabetes among participants with low baseline serum 25(OH)D levels (less than 30 nmol/L [12 ng/mL]) who took the vitamin D supplement than among those who took the placebo [145,150]. With the D Programming Language, write fast, read fast, and run fast. Among the 198 participants who died (41 deaths were due to prostate cancer), 25(OH)D levels were not associated with risk of death from prostate cancer or any cause [114]. Diets low in vitamin D are more common in people who have milk allergy or lactose intolerance and those who consume an ovo-vegetarian or vegan diet [1]. [, Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, Vacek PM, Cooper SM. A reverse J-shaped association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiovascular disease mortality: The CopD study. templates, Create an account or log into Facebook. "[your code here]" in the subject. [, Heath AK, Hodge AM, Ebeling PR, Eyles DW, Kvaskoff D, Buchanan DD, et al. One trial included 206 adults (mean age 52 years) who were randomized to take a bolus dose of 2,500 mcg (100,000 IU) vitamin D3 followed by 500 mcg (20,000 IU)/week or a placebo for 4 months [132]. contributors. Some vitamin D3 is also converted to nonactive forms [1]. For example, a 3-year trial in New Zealand randomized 5,110 adults (mean age 65.9 years) to a single dose of 5,000 mcg (200,000 IU) vitamin D3 followed by 2,500 mcg (100,000 IU) each month or a placebo for a median of 3.3 years [124]. Ask ODS Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. D&D is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms The Free Dictionary No studies have examined whether such screening for vitamin D deficiency results in improved health outcomes [56]. Observational studies suggest that adequate vitamin D levels might reduce the risk of contracting MS and, once MS is present, decrease the risk of relapse and slow the disease's progression [138]. abbreviation meanings updated January 2021 JAMA 2017;317:1217-8. In a meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies in a total of 137,567 participants who had 8,345 diagnoses of cancer, 5,755 participants died from cancer [88]. About 2.3 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the United States in 2015 [74]. [, Ekwaru JP, Zwicker JD, Holick MF, Giovannucci E, Veugelers PJ. 2. [, Moyer VA. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Vitamin D deficiency. A prospective nested case-control study of vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk in male smokers. From simple scripts to large projects, D has the breadth Vitamin D for the management of multiple sclerosis (review). Few people near the equator develop the disease, whereas the prevalence is higher further north and south. the DStyle, However, whether these lower levels in persons with dark skin have significant health consequences is not clear [14]. Nutr Rev 2019;77:890-902. The best paradigm is to not impose something at the expense of others. 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