Answer Save. Evolutionary History of the Robust Australopithecines. Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei. complex hybrid habitats The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than: 4 mya. Most facial traits of robust australopithecines arose as developmental by-products of their unusual set of teeth, she proposes. 4 to 1 mya. The genus Australopithecine includes hominins that lived about. The robust australopithecines all became extinct between 1.5 and 1 million years ago, while one of the gracile autralophithecines is believed to have given rise to the branch leading to the emergence of the genus Homo c.2.5 million years ago. Collectively, we call these the robust Australopithecines. Australopithecus robustus’s large masticatory complex (large molars, face, and muscles) indicate an adaptation: to eating foods requiring heavy chewing. The various species lived 4.4 million to 1.4 million years ago, during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. Homo habilis, extinct species of human, the most ancient member of the human genus. The holotype specimen, OH 5, was discovered by palaeoanthropologist Mary Leakey in 1959, and described by her husband Louis a month later. d-sagittal crest. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Australopithecus, group of extinct primates closely related to modern humans and known from fossils from eastern, north-central, and southern Africa. 1 Answer. Australopithecus (/ ˌ ɒ s t r ə l ə ˈ p ɪ θ ɪ k ə s /, OS-trə-lə-PITH-i-kəs; from Latin australis 'southern', and Greek πίθηκος (pithekos) 'ape'; singular: australopith) is a genus of early hominins that existed in Africa during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene.The genera Homo (which includes modern humans), Paranthropus, and Kenyanthropus evolved from Australopithecus. Anonymous. H. The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than ____ mya. Australopithecus afarensis and africanus, and the other species above, are known as gracile australopithecines, because of their relatively lighter build, especially in the skull and teeth. What do distinctive traits of robust australopithecines include? Robust Australopithecine species include. The illustration on the right shows "Lucy" in comparison with a modern human female. Distinctive traits of robust australopithecines include: ... d.both a. and c. d. both a. and c. 26 Along with other distinct traits, robust australopithecines had large _____ adapted for grinding food. She was only about 3 feet, 8 inches tall. Bipedalism’s advantages over quadrupedalism include Some anthropologists prefer to assign this group to its own genus: Paranthropus due to … Morphological traits include subterranean woody regenerative organs, ... (1983), in their examination of Australopithecines, found that robust Australopithecines had higher frequencies of cusp 6 on the first lower molar, while gracile Australopithecines had a higher frequency of cusp 7 on the second lower molar. Australopithecus robustus and A. boisei are also referred to as “robust” australopiths. The most famous specimen is “Lucy,” a nearly complete skeleton found in 1974 at Hadar, Ethiopia. A)small front teeth,large back teeth,a big face,and a sagittal crest B)a small brain and a large body C)large front teeth,large back teeth,and no sagittal crest D)a large diastema and no sagittal crest Also, they include Jebel Irhoud, Omo, Herto, Florisbad, Skhul, and Peștera cu Oase, exhibiting a mix of archaic and modern traits. Males were somewhat taller and twice as robust (sexual dimorphism). They are collectively known as the ‘robusts’ because of their extremely large jaws and molar teeth. 8. The australopiths are a group of early hominins (humans and their close extinct relatives) that lived in Africa between approximately 4.1 and 1.4 million years ago. Formerly known as the australopithecines, they are not a “natural” group, in that they do not represent all of the descendants of a single common ancestor (i.e., they are not a “clade”). c-more angled femur. Differing views on the relative significance of traits within this sample have inspired three main interpretations of the phylogenetic status of … The Oldowan Complex includes tools like: a.hand axes, flakes, and cores. large premolars and molars large temporalis muscles and a sagittal crest The earliest hominins probably lived in which kind of environment? Morphological Trait. b-larger molars. aethiopicus, a species that includes the recently discovered WT 17000 or "black skull" (SN: 1/24/87, p.58) and was either related to or a direct ancestor of the later robust australopithecines, A. Hominid evolution: a tale of two trees They are our distant ‘cousins’ rather than our direct relatives. Anthropology Thus, he argues, Falk inappropriately uses only one anatomical feature -- venous drainage patterns--to group Lucy and other Hadar hominids with robust australopithecines . Au. c. a big face and a sagittal crest. Distinctive traits of robust australopithecines include: both a and c (small front teeth & large back teeth, a big face and a sagittal crest: Along with other distinct traits, robust australopithecines had ____ adapted for grinding food: e-all are features unique to robust australopithecines. (Gracile means "slender", and in paleoanthropology is used as an antonym to "robust".) Summary – Paranthropus vs Australopithecus Both Paranthropus and Australopithecus are extinct hominins. Similarities Between Gracile and Robust Gracile and robust are two terms, describing different species of the genus Australopithecus of the tribe hominini . Based on the research of Philip Reno, early hominins show reduced sexual dimorphism, which is evidence for cooperation and likely for: pair bonding. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Australopithecines include a variety of species, each experimenting in being a bipedal capable of exploiting a range of dietary resources including tough or hard-to-chew foods when necessary, yet without having become encephalized to the extent seen in Homo (Hammond and Ward, 2013). (a) sagittal crest, (b) … Franzen argues that robust australopiths had reached not only Indonesia, as Meganthropus, but also China: "In this way we arrive at the conclusion that the recognition of australopithecines in Asia would not confuse but could help to clarify the early evolution of hominids ["hominins"] on that continent. Despite this, they were still more robust than modern humans. Study Flashcards On chpt 10 test at Cram.com. Relevance. The genus or group Paranthropus currently includes three species, Paranthropus boisei, Paranthropus robustus, and Paranthropus walkeri. The robust australopithecines all became extinct between 1.5 and 1 million years ago, while one of the gracile autralophithecines is believed to have given rise to the branch leading to the emergence of the genus Homo c.2.5 million years ago. Paranthropus were robust and descended from gracile australopithecines. Aethiopicus. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. Three cranial traits used to differentiate gracile and robust Australopithecines include the robust Australopithecine having a sagittal crest, a more robust mandible, and a flatter face, where the gracile has no sagittal crest, a less robust mandible, and more visible prognathism. b. a small brain and a large body. 1 decade ago. Exercise 3 The robust Australopithecines: These three species of Australopithecines are often “lumped” together due to their unique features. They were bipedal and probably lived 2.7 million years ago. The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. Based on these pronounced differences, australopithecines are classified into two distinct types: gracile and robust. Based on these pronounced differences, australopithecines are classified into two distinct types: gracile and robust. It is divided broadly to three groups; Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei. Australopithecine definition is - any of various extinct hominids (genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus) that existed two to four million years ago in southern and eastern Africa and include gracile and robust forms exhibiting bipedal locomotion, near-human dentition, and relatively small brains. 4. The best known australopithecines, represented by hundreds of fossils and dozens of individuals found mostly at Laetoli and Hadar is. Which of the following traits does not represent the robust australopithecines? Paranthropus boisei is a species of australopithecine from the Early Pleistocene of East Africa about 2.3 to 1.34 or 1 million years ago. d. both a. and c. 5. Along with other distinct traits robust australopithecines had _____ adapted for grinding food. Ardi was adapted to life in trees and: on the ground. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Elements of Lucy’s anatomy that suggest she may have spent some time in the trees include (a) short legs, (b) broad pelvis, (c) long arms, (d) short, straight digits. It inhabited parts of sub-Saharan Africa from roughly 2.4 to 1.5 million years ago. The Australopithecus species, referred to as Australopithecines, had features that were both human-like and ape-like. Robust australopithecines are different from gracile australopithecines in all of the following ways EXCEPT? Other articles where Australopithecus aethiopicus is discussed: Australopithecus: Australopithecus aethiopicus: Australopithecus aethiopicus (2.7–2.3 mya), formerly known as Paranthropus aethopicus, is the earliest of the so-called robust australopiths, a group that also includes A. robustus and A. boisei (described below). 5 G. Distinctive traits of paranthropoids (robust australopithecines) include: a. small front teeth and large back teeth. Afarensis. Their brains were smaller and more in the range of the brains of modern apes. Many of its features appear to be intermediate between the relatively primitive Australopithecus and … Au. a-wider face/cheek bones.