Whatever direction the current popular struggles ultimately take, what is certain is that they are learning well from history, and are a harbinger of many more to come. AfCFTA will ultimately bring together all 55 member states of the African Union covering a market of more than 1.2 billion people — including a growing middle class — and a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of more than US$3.4 trillion. According to Clemente Prieto of the Spanish Committee on Large Dams: “Climate change is having a remarkable impact on hydropower generation and it increases the challenge of managing hydro plants”. It… From the early 2000s, Uganda’s participation in a regional security project in the context of the War on Terror, particularly in the Somalian conflict, rehabilitated the regime’s international image and provided cover for the narrowing political space at home, as well as facilitating a further entrenchment of Museveni’s rule. If completed, the 700m long by 130m high SGD would be one of Africa’s largest dams by installed capacity, equal to Egypt’s Aswan High Dam (2,100MW) and Mozambique’s Cahora Bassa (2,075MW). One looked at the background to it, including the stakeholders involved. Establishment of a planned reservoir at Stiegler's Gorge on the Rufiji River would enable a large amount of highlyvalued energy to be produced. the government will go ahead with implementation of the project whether you like it or not. In the 1970s, Swedish aid financed dams at Kidatu and Mtera on the Ruaha River, a tributary of the Rufiji, upstream from Stiegler’s Gorge. Gorge dam - President also met with Slovenian Prime Minister who visited Egypt for first time. Not only conservationists have found fault with President Magufuli’s mega-project. Despite mega-dams’ bad reputation, a number of countries are investing heavily in mega-hydro, including Ethiopia, Brazil, Pakistan and China. A study titled Structural adjustment and sustainable development in Tanzania reported that siltation was a common feature of small dams in Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Dodoma, Tanga and Rukwa regions. The construction of the Stiegler’s Gorge dam and hydroelectric power plant is expected to employ 12,000 people over the next three years, according to Hassan Abbasi, spokesman for the Tanzanian government. Al-Sisi praises Stiegler's Gorge dam in meeting with Tanzanian Minister of Defence - Daily News Egypt. An expert from KfW (Germany’s state development bank) resigned after two years, during which the GOT restricted his visits to Selous (his work site). Gas, not electricity, is the best (or least bad) alternative to unsustainable charcoal use for cooking in Dar es Salaam and other urban centres. Finally, no private investors could be found to finance a dam on a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) basis. New roads and power transmission lines and the arrival of contractors and workers on the dam site and attendant commercial activities will have a massive and uncontrolled impact on the local environment and encourage further poaching, say the project’s critics. Wildlife trafficking, population growth and competition over resources are likely to lead us inexorably towards a comprehensive tragedy of the commons. Caricatures aside, how do President Yoweri Museveni and the National Revolutionary Movement state reproduce power? Waves of sustained ivory poaching reduced the elephant population from about 100,000 to only 13,000 in 2013. Kenya’s Standard Gauge Railway is bleeding money and is economically unviable. . What is left now is perhaps only the “Muhoozi project,” a supposed plan by Museveni to have his son Muhoozi Kainerugaba succeed him. . President Magufuli says more power will be required for industrial growth, rural electrification and to run the Standard Gauge Railway, justifying one mega-white-elephant project in terms of the needs of another. As police’s mandate expanded to include the pursuit of regime critics, its budget ballooned, and its chief, General Kale Kayihura, became the most powerful person after Museveni—before his recent dismissal. President Magufuli disbanded RUBADA in 2017 and the SGD’s client is now Tanzania’s power utility TANESCO under the supervision of the Ministry of Energy. A ministry’s head of procurement can request authority from the National Treasury to create blanket agreements for certain vendors. The brief Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) produced by the University of Dar es Salaam’s Consultancy Bureau in 2018 contained “hardly any quantitative predictions of positive or negative impacts” of the proposed dam. Knowing how much water goes through the river per annum, would also help the contractors in designing the kind of turbines they would require for the plant. In keeping with the War on Terror being for forever, and despite departing Somalia in 1993, America outsourced a massive chunk of the fight against Al Shabaab to Ethiopia primarily, and later, to AMISOM. Its implementation… In 2015, however, his attempt to run against Museveni in the ruling party primaries also earned him an expulsion from both the secretary general position of the ruling party as well as the prime ministerial office. Stiegler’s Gorge dam is east Africa’s largest hydropower dam, located along the Rufiji river in the heart of one of Africa’s largest remaining wild areas – the Selous Game Reserve. Speaking ahead of the commissioning of the Kinyerezi II power generation project on Tuesday, Dr Kalemani said the project will be implemented in 36 months. It involved not the usual antagonists—gun-toting rebels or ruling party elites—but ordinary protesters. This platform uses cookies to improve your browsing experience. “So if the human element is also not working as expected then the system cannot be perfect.”. kms. Effectively, only the waters of the Rufiji will be filling the dam’s vast reservoir. Even without the gathering storm clouds of climate change, and the obscenities of ivory poaching and wildlife trafficking, population growth and competition over finite resources are likely to lead us inexorably towards a comprehensive tragedy of the commons. 4 | From Aswan to Stiegler’s Gorge. There are no apps or switches to flip to arrest this slide. A gloomy but realistic prognosis is that further population growth and the impact of climate change will eventually put an end to conservation and wildlife tourism in the Selous and throughout the continent. Rapid population growth is fueling increasing conflicts between farmers and cattle-herders over land. . Successive Tanzanian governments, politicians and officials, were widely considered complicit at best or, at worst, actively involved in facilitating the trade. All Rights Reserved. Electoral defeat thus never constituted a threat to the NRM, at least at parliamentary and presidential levels. The dam is likely to cost a multiple of the present contract price, and take much longer to build than currently proposed. Yet another company, Wet Blue Proprietors Logistics Ltd., shares a phone number with Tira Southshore and another post office box with Icpher Consultants Company Ltd., according to a Kenya National Highway Authority list of pre-qualified vendors. The dam is expected to provide power for the country’s emerging industries, with plans to export its surplus to other east African countries. But the way the system was installed and used in Kenya compromised its extolled safeguards, according to auditors. They are literally special purpose vehicles to conduct ‘heists’ and with no track record to deliver the public goods, works or services procured,” said Sheila Masinde, executive director of Transparency International-Kenya. Lately it has been given credence by the son’s rapid rise to commanding positions in elite sections of the Ugandan military. Two weeks after the license was granted, Mematira Holdings Limited was incorporated, with Nyamai’s husband and daughter as directors. In response to the release of the invitation to tender for building Stiegler’s Gorge hydropower dam at the heart of the Selous Game Reserve, WWF reiterates its deep concerns that necessary evaluations have not been carried out to assess its potential impacts to people’s livelihoods and environment. Falling water levels due to the degradation of water catchment areas rendered the potential of hydropower “doubtful”. Those who are resisting the project will be jailed”. The Political Ecology of the Stiegler’s Gorge Dam and the Selous Game Reserve (Tanzania), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). Reporters were unable to confirm whether KSh4 billion was paid by the ministry. With or without a functioning dam, the SGR has taken an additional hit. The MOU specified a seven-year timeline to finish the first phase and a further three years to complete the project. Arab Contractors, Sewedy Electric, form alliance which won constructing project deal Expected to generate 2,100 MW of electricity, the Stigler’s Gorge Hydroelectric Project (HEP) will draw its water from the Rufiji River. “A blanket agreement is something which should be exceptional, in my view,” says former Auditor-General, Edward Ouko. Big dams are inherently high-risk. A 2018 World Bank technical appraisal for a power interconnectivity project between Tanzania and Zambia argued that internal demand for electricity was inadequate to justify the SGD, so that it could only be justified if exports were built into the project. Egypt is one such hub. Despite the elegy about its retreat in Africa, democracy enjoys tremendous support. Kenya’s ambassador is a political appointee who, when he is not sparring with Kenyans on Twitter, is supporting a discredited coal mining project. This “non-interference” phase lasted until the twin Nairobi and Dar es Salaam US embassy bombings by Al Qaeda in 1998. Stiegler’s Gorge dam is east Africa’s largest hydropower dam, located along the Rufiji river in the heart of one of Africa’s largest remaining wild areas – the Selous Game Reserve. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. While Chinese infrastructure projects grab the headlines, China has moved into diversifying its engagement with Africa. The government of Tanzania has been considering establishing this power station since the 1960s. America should pivot way from making the military the most visible face of its engagement with Africa and instead invest in deepening democracy as a principled approach rather than a convenient choice. After so many years of aborted plans to build a dam, what has changed to make Stiegler’s a viable project? Reiterates its utmost concern about the weakening of the legal protection status of the property, the different development projects (Stiegler's Gorge dam, Kidunda dam and Mukuju River uranium mine and oil exploration) which are being considered, ongoing wildlife poaching and the evident deterioration in the management of the property; can pose as a great danger to our national interests as strong states.”. Despite this level of engagement, defeating Al Shabaab remains a remote possibility. Dernière modification le 19 janvier 2014, à 02:27. If anything, the project is even less viable now than it was a decade ago, before Tanzania’s huge gas deposits off its southern coast began to be exploited. In many African countries, political and military elites have now developed a predictable rule-based compact governing accession to power via elections rather than the coups of the past. In the picture J.V Arab Contractors/El Sewedy Electric officers sign an agreement of Stieglers Gorge hydropower project which will produce 2100 MW. Exploration and mining concessions to Western and Russian oil, gas and uranium companies covering an estimated six per cent of Selous constitute a further challenge to the reserve’s integrity, and have been widely criticised by environmentalists. WWF-commissioned research on the Stiegler’s Gorge project strongly indicates that construction of the dam will have far-reaching negative impacts on the Selous, and beyond. Co-owner of Tira Southshore Holdings Limited, Abigael Mukeli, described the company to reporters as a health consulting firm. Or so it seemed. Conservation Versus “Development”: A Zero-Sum Game? megadams are not economically viable”. The President’s claim that “just three percent” of the SGR will be affected by the dam is also challenged by environmentalists, pointing to the downstream impacts and the likely negative effects of the dam’s construction on the Selous discussed above. For sixty years, no bilateral development agency nor the World Bank has been willing to finance a dam at Stiegler’s Gorge, though these agencies have funded numerous medium-size dams over the years on tributaries of the Rufiji River, which regularly dry up during the dry season and are increasingly vulnerable to unpredictable rains. But the dreams of “walk-to-work”—the nightmare for the Museveni state—had never really disappeared, and behind the tightly-patrolled streets always lay the simmering quest for change. Not even China, Africa’s premier source of concessional finance for big infrastructure projects, including dams, has shown any interest in financing this one. Defending the dam that he claims will power his ambitious industrialisation programme, President Magufuli claims that it will affect “just three percent” of the SGR, and will help combat deforestation across the country by providing citizens with a cheap alternative to charcoal and wood fuel. Megaprojects are systematically subject to “survival of the unfittest”, the worst projects get built instead of the best. South African, Canadian and Chinese companies came forward with hydropower proposals, but the main interest came from Brazil’s giant Odebrecht corporation, which in 2012 signed an MOU with the Rufiji Basin Development Authority (RUBADA). It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. She insisted that Tira Southshore never had a contract to deliver hand sanitizer, but declined to answer specific questions. Loggers have already cleared the dam site of vegetation, and the site of the projected 1,200 sq. Copyright © 2017-2021 The Elephant. New roads and power transmission lines and the arrival of contractors and workers on the dam site and attendant commercial activities will have a massive and uncontrolled impact on the local environment and encourage further poaching, say the project’s critics. Though estimates vary, Deborah Brautigam and her team identified Chinese-financed dam projects in 17 African countries in 2013, financed by concessional loans from China’s Exim Bank worth nearly US$7 billion. For example, the leaked data show two transactions for Ameken Minewest for Sh6.9 million each — a blanket purchase order for El Nino mitigation supplies and a standard order for the supply of chlorine tablets eight days later. In 2018, China increased its funding for diplomacy by nearly 16 per cent and its funding for foreign aid by almost 7 per cent. The result was the emergence of the second phase — non-engagement when Rwanda’s Genocide erupted in 1994 and almost a million people died in 100 days revealed the limitations of over-correcting the Somalia experience. Printed materials totalling at least KSh214 million for Ebola prevention and information posters, contact tracing forms, technical guideline and point-of-entry forms, brochures and decision charts, etc. It’s also listed by KENHA as a vetted consultant for HIV/AIDS mitigation services, together with Icpher Consultants. . And in this one there is no competition,” explained a procurement officer, who spoke generally about blanket purchase agreements on background. Human rights activists condemn forced population displacements while the economics of large dams are increasingly questionable. President John Magufuli of Tanzania will travel to Rufiji on Friday, July 26, 2019, to launch the Stiegler’s Gorge hydroelectric project. That is how we arrived at the present moment, with a popstar representing the widespread aspiration for better government, and a seemingly all-powerful president suddenly struggling for legitimacy. Past Plans to Dam the Rufiji Came to Nothing. In 2016, Stiegler’s Gorge Dam (SGD) was included in the Tanzania Power System Master Plan, and the project was finally underway. the second most populous country globally by 2100. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Nigeria will become the second most populous country globally by 2100, behind only India. Even with a policy, where the counterterrorism framework views Africa as a problem to be solved by military means, the containing China policy views African countries as lacking the agency to act in their own interests. Ebola-related pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical supplies, including hand sanitizer, Ebola-related conferences, catering, and travel expenses, At least KSh15 millions paid to a single vendor for isolation beds. Note: The map shows the SGR before the creation of the Nyerere National Park in 2019. A third transaction — this one for 0 shillings — was generated 10 days later by the same procurement employee, using the original order description: “please supply hand sanitizers 5oomls as per contract Moh/dpphs/dsru/008/14-15-MTC/17/14-15(min.no.6). Nearly all US funding for Egypt comes from the Foreign Military Finance (FMF) account and is in turn used to purchase military equipment of US origin, spare parts, training, and maintenance from US firms. Another highlight of staying at Sand Rivers is venturing to up the Rufiji River to Stieglers Gorge. Spotlighting the Plight of Africa's Elephants. Over the last decades, while America was busy creating the interlocking counterterrorism infrastructure in Africa, China was building large-scale infrastructure across the continent. The United States Africa Command (Africom) is the vehicle of America’s engagement with the continent. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. For the moment, only the dam site has been cleared. According to Kenyan conservationist Richard Leakey, as a result of climate change: “. kms. Critics argue that the notion that rural Tanzanians will soon enjoy cheap hydropower via the national grid thanks to the SGD is highly unrealistic. After a heated debate in the German Bundestag in early 2019, a proposal that future Germany aid should be made conditional on Tanzania abandoning the dam was rejected, while it was agreed that Germany should assist Tanzania in finding an alternative source of power. By the middle of this century Africa’s population is expected to double to roughly two billion. However Tira Southshore also holds an active exploration license for the industrial mining in a 27-square-kilometer area in Kitui County, including in the restricted South Kitui National Reserve. Over many years, Germany has financed the Tanzanian government, technical experts, the Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS) and others to promote conservation efforts in the Selous. The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) and Morogoro region authority, the Rubada Acting Director General Alloyce Masanja named the projects as Stieglers Gorge and Mpanga.He said the Stieglers Gorge project was expected to generate 2,100MW while the Mpanga project would generate 165MW.He said the government had hesitated to allow the execution of the Stieglers Gorge … Up-stream irrigated rice cultivation on the Kilombero River and sugar on the Great Ruaha have reduced the volume of water flowing into the Rufiji, and future unpredictable weather patterns could lead to crippling drought. Climate change is having a remarkable impact on hydropower generation and it increases the challenge of managing hydro plants. President Magufuli disbanded RUBADA in 2017 and the SGD’s client is now Tanzania’s power utility TANESCO under the supervision of the Ministry of Energy. He was unpopular, with a record tainted by corruption scandals and complicity in Museveni’s authoritarianism, but his status as a “president-in-waiting” had given the NRM at least the semblance of an institution that could survive beyond Museveni’s tenure, which his firing effectively ended. Climate change and conflict resolution provide opportunities for cooperation. Stiegler's Gorge Dam project preparations almost finished A SERIES of monthly meetings will be held by Egypt’s prime minister Mostafa Madbouly and the chief executive officer of the Arab Contractors construction company, Mohsen Salah, to follow up on progress in the construction of the Stiegler's Gorge Dam in Tanzania. By the late 2000s the LRA war was coming to an end—but another war had taken over its function just in time. Currently, Tanzania has surplus power generation capacity of 280MW, and it is most unlikely that so much additional power would find a market. The Stiegler`s Gorge Power Plant is argued to be the least cost option for Tanzania in terms of the investment required for average kilowatt hour generated ($/kWh) and is expected to be the largest and fourth largest power station in Tanzania and Africa respectively with annual power consumption capacity of 5920 gigawatt hours (GWh). Waves of sustained ivory poaching reduced the elephant population from about 100,000 to only 13,000 in 2013. Joerg Hartmann, an independent consultant who undertook an economic feasibility assessment of the project, argues that: “Stiegler’s Gorge has become unnecessary, and would be a significant economic burden for Tanzania”. Stiegler's gorge is currently a destination for boating and fishing Safaris, most of which originate from the more calmer waters of the Rufiji flood plain located down stream from it; However, the sights of the gorge can the also be viewed from the air and the gorge is also a … The US has only acknowledged having caused civilian casualties in Somalia three times. Both colonial and post-independence governments explored the viability of damning the Rufiji River at Stiegler’s Gorge to produce power and develop irrigation agriculture. If possible, i would like to advice Tanzanian government to find an alternative means to solve power crisis which facing our country now. If anything, the project is even less viable now than it was a decade ago, before Tanzania’s huge gas deposits off its southern coast began to be exploited. Every week you will receive a curated digest of our latest and best content straight to your email inbox. Although they were linked to only a few of Mogadishu’s local courts, on 24 December 2006, Ethiopia’s military intervened in Somalia to contain the rise of Al Shabaab’s political and military influence. For the few months they were in charge, the Union of Islamic Courts (ICU) brought order and stability to the country. In the same year, the WHC expressed its “utmost concern about the ongoing project despite a high likelihood of serious and irreversible damage to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property”, that is, the Selous. In 2016, Stiegler’s Gorge Dam (SGD) was included in the Tanzania Power System Master Plan, and the project was finally underway. Comprehending its dynamics requires paying attention to at-least three turning points in the National Resistance Movement’s history, which resulted in a gradual weeding-out of Museveni’s contemporaries and potential opponents from the NRM, then the mobilisation of military conflict to shore up regime legitimacy, and the policing of urban spaces to contain the increasingly frequent signals of potential revolution. According to Reuters, the President urged the development bank to finance a 2,100MW hydroelectric plant at Stiegler’s Gorge. The reflexive reaction to the events of September 11 2001 spawned an interlocking web of covert and overt military and non-military operations. . Democracy, while still fledgling, remains a positive trend; since 2015, there have been 34 peaceful transfers of power. In May 2018, both ruling party and opposition MPs challenged the decision to proceed with the SGD project in advance of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the premature issuing of licences to clear-fell the site of the dam’s future reservoir. According to Clemente Prieto of the Spanish Committee on Large Dams: “Climate change is having a remarkable impact on hydropower generation and it increases the challenge of managing hydro plants”. 24 January 2021 0. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. If and when the price of uranium reaches a certain threshold, we may expect mining to take off, with the attendant negative environmental consequences. Though universal, the issue of systemic resource misallocation is particularly devastating in poor countries, where investible savings are by definition limited, and where prestige projects, white elephants and poor policy analysis and implementation commit huge amounts of capital to non-performing ventures, at enormous opportunity costs. Discussion:Gorges Stieglers. Organising and protest became virtually impossible, as urban areas came under 24/7 surveillance. This comes after the State opened the bids for the 2100MW hydropower project in August last year and its construction will last for 36 months. These included: Tira Southshore Holdings Limited and Ameken Minewest Company Limited, appear to have no history of dealing in hygiene or medical supplies. America carried out its first drone strike in Somalia in 2011 during President Barack Obama’s tenure. Conservation Vs “Development”? kms. Critics wonder why, given the Tanzanian government’s refusal to enter into a substantive dialogue with its main long-term advisor/financier on conservation issues, while constantly ignoring its own international conservation commitments and policies, Germany continues to fund conservation efforts in Tanzania. Both MOH and Ms Mukeli refused to confirm whether the ordered supplies were delivered. New EIA illuminates Stiegler’s Gorge project green light CONTRARY to previous reports by environmentalists, the new Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report for the 2,100 megawatts – Rufiji Hydropower Project at Stigler’s Gorge has shown recoverable effects, confirming government’s forecasts to start construction work later next month. New EIA illuminates Stiegler’s Gorge project green light CONTRARY to previous reports by environmentalists, the new Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report for the 2,100 megawatts – Rufiji Hydropower Project at Stigler’s Gorge has shown recoverable effects, confirming government’s forecasts to start construction work later next month. Gas, not electricity, is the best (or least bad) alternative to unsustainable charcoal use for cooking in Dar es Salaam and other urban centres. Subscribe to receive new post Notifications. “It could well be a duplicate, using the same information, to get through the process. In June 2017, the 5th administration made public its ambitious plan to build what would become the biggest power project in Tanzania. Gorge dam - President also met with Slovenian Prime Minister who visited Egypt for first time. In the same year, the WHC expressed its “utmost concern about the ongoing project despite a high likelihood of serious and irreversible damage to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property”, that is, the Selous.