These regions are mainly located in Africa and South Asia, but China and Latin America could also be affected. Africa, where people under 15 years old represent some 45% of the whole population, will have to feed a population that is expected to increase from 832 million in 2002 to more than 1.8 billion by 2050. 'However, Africa has to recover from 25 years of structural adjustment policies and six severe droughts’ [28]. All of these events occurred when Mozambique was welcoming investors interested in exploiting the country’s vast natural resources. It is funded by the United States, Canada, Spain, and South Korea, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation also joined the program. A third of all people living in sub-Saharan Africa face severe food insecurity. Over 5 years, Tefera Belachew (University of Jimma, Ethiopia) and colleagues have interviewed families about their food habits and their health. As a direct consequence, girls suffer more from general weakness and pathologies. The riots left at least a dozen dead and more than 400 injured. Farmers confronted with weather vagaries or climate change should be assisted in the improvement of irrigation systems that enable crops to improve their resistance to drought, according to Hafez Ghanem, assistant Director-General of the FAO. Santé, education, violences: les adolescentes perdent sur tous les tableaux. Incorporated as a not-for-profit foundation in 1971, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Forum is tied to no political, partisan or national interests. Le Monde. Another group of 560 farmers in the village of Mbuvo, south of Nairobi, were harvesting their first crop of cassava by the end of July 2011. It has plenty of natural resources. This meant very harsh competition for small producers from developing countries, for whom it is increasingly difficult to live from their farm activities. The global population is predicted to grow by 2 billion by 2050 and with more than half of that growth coming from Sub-Saharan Africa, addressing food insecurity has become a matter of urgency. Here are three of the most impactful R&D successes from the past few years that are helping smallholder farmers cope with climate change and bolster food security: 1. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. They had already done so regarding bananas: a number of Latin American countries are big producers and exporters of bananas; a tariff is imposed on the fruits imported by the European Union countries, whereas this is not the case for bananas imported from Africa or the French Antilles [32]. A US$900 million 'global program for food security’ was announced only on April 22, 2010. Similarly, the African Union and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) had launched in 2003 a programme of agriculture development that needed investments of about US$251 billion, while public aid to development accounted to less than US$1 billion in 2004. In 2008, food riots occurred in Cameroon and Somalia, and spread through Mozambique. For all developing countries, these figures were 2,660 and 0.49%, respectively, and 2,670 and 0.56% for the Asia Pacific region. Whereas the yield of irrigated agriculture is three times higher than that of rainfed agriculture, Africa only uses 4% of its available water resources for irrigation; only 7% of farmland (1.6% in sub-Saharan Africa) is irrigated. Food insecurity is one way we can measure and assess the risk of hunger. Thus, Bernard Njonga, in 2003, created the Citizen Association for the Defence of Collective Interests (ACDIC, Association Citoyenne de Défense des Intérêts Collectifs) in order to struggle against the imports of chickens and poultry meat. By then, the government was expected to issue a longer-term plan for economic and social stability [14]. The recommended objective is to irrigate 14% of farmland. Output of soybeans (most of which are fed to livestock) will need to more than double, to 515 million tons [9]. In the region of Androy, only 7% of the population had access to drinking water [5]. Food insecurity as a student issue. Finally, the government and trade unions had signed an agreement to raise by 50% the fare of collective minibuses [15]. Their production costs are higher than for imported food, whose dumping prices discourage them from producing more [24]. Among the teenagers interviewed, about 25% of the females have been confronted with food insecurity, compared with 16% of the males. California Privacy Statement, Only 4% of agricultural lands in Africa are irrigated [2]. It does not seem to be the case. The…, Strategies Sought to Reduce African Food Insecurity, US Sends Elite Disaster Experts to Respond to Ethiopia Drought, Study: African Crops Threatened by Climate Change, Mobile Phone App Pools Money Spent by Poor for Clean Water, UN: 34 Countries Don't Have Enough Food for Their People, US Marks 400th Anniversary of Arrival of First Africans, The Dragon's Reach - China's Economic Power Play. HARARE - United Nations agencies and African governments are meeting to develop strategies to reduce food losses among smallholder farmers. 2008, Caramel L: La sécheresse en Europe menace l’approvisionnement en céréales des pays pauvres. But the latter cannot provide their support over more than three or four years. But good practices have to spread throughout the continent, while at the same time social and economic measures, as well as political will, are indispensable ingredients of Africa’s green revolution. So were 533,000 refugees in the overcrowded Dadaab camp near the border with Somalia (as of July 14, 2011). 12. The 4 billion human beings who make up the rural societies can alter, through their migrations, the demographic balance. (2010) identify lack of political will at both global and national levels as the major cause of the growing divergence from this important MDG. Good practices must be identified and examples of successful agricultural development should be publicized. Consequently, networks and coalitions of producers have been created in order to advocate and defend their right to food sovereignty. In order to prevent a country-wide massive protest, the increase in bread price was cancelled and the state had to bear the brunt of the 25% rise in the price of a loaf of bread (1.50 dirhams, or €0.14). Using HFIAS, the majority of the farming households were found food insecure. Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world, where more than 50% of the population was less than 18 years old in 2009 and where 85% of teenagers were living in rural areas. Consequently, the Republic of Congo spent about 130 billion CFA francs (about €20 million) in 2010, that is the equivalent of all the salaries or wages paid by the state, to import the food and commodities needed to feed 4 million inhabitants [30]. In general, the people who lives in South Asia, West Asia and Sub-Saharan African may have the most insecurity about food. There is almost no state welfare. Nearly a billion people across the world experience the effects of food insecurity (1). In less than 40 years, the agricultural seasons of these regions will be shorter, warmer and drier, jeopardizing the life of hundreds of millions of people who are already poor or very poor. On the supply side, there is not much new land to be brought under the plough unless it comes from clearing tropical forests or from clearing the Brazilian cerrados (savannah-like regions south of the Amazon forest). Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in June 2011. Adding further to these concerns is climate change, of which agriculture is both cause and victim [9]. 2010, Hervieu S: Au Kenya, la sécheresse décime les troupeaux. Thus, after about 40 years of decrease in the global prices of cereals (-60%), while production has been growing, 2 years were sufficient to send prices soaring. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. This suggested that the world could not even feed its current population, let alone the 9 billion expected by 2050. Amidst the debates on climate change, Africa is 'the forgotten continent’, as stated by Yvo Boer, Secretary-General of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change, in Accra (Ghana), during an international conference on the follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol, which ended on August 27, 2008. He added that the solution was to assist small farmers 'to increase their productivity, to find outlets and to adopt new agricultural techniques’. 'The total amount of the projects funded in Africa by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) over the past 17 years was US$378 million, while the global amount was more than US $2.4 billion,’ stated Yvo de Boer in Accra. In Yemen, food riots turned deadly, taking at least a dozen lives [10, 12]. This programme has been launched by President Sassou N’ Guesso and it received €20 million. According to Mamadou Cissokho, 'The agreements of the World Trade Organization have resulted in the elimination of tariff protection at the frontiers; African countries import up to 40% of their food, and they have neither a regional nor continental market. We must rise to the challenge presented by high, volatile food prices and turn it into an opportunity for the continent of Africa and, most important, for its women. Investment in EbA is one of the most important keys to job creation opportunities that simultaneously contribute to poverty eradication and to sustainable long-term food security. More effort is needed to create inter-regional cooperation on maritime security. Retrieved from This had to be achieved by the beginning of 2008. The alternative view is sceptical of, or even downright hostile to, the modern food business. In 2006, ACDIC launched a campaign on food sovereignty and collected the written support of citizens for subsidies to farmers. East Africa is a region beset by climate- and conflict-related shocks. There are differences between the two periods, but the fact that agriculture has experienced two big price spikes in less than 4 years suggests that something serious is rattling the global food chain [9]. Ethiopia. In the latter country, they were streaming into overcrowded camps hosting some 380,000 people, more than four times their original capacity. Of the 90 health centers, 52 that UNICEF had supported over 18 months in the south of the country could close down by the end of 2010 because of lack of funds [5]. Perhaps the trendiest and most innovative approach to solving food insecurity is agrihoods. Most of its 20 million people live on less than $1.25 a day. So, according to the FAO, producing enough food to feed the world in the next four decades should be easier than in the previous four. Despite an annual GDP growth of between 8% and 13% over 10 years (except in 2000 because of catastrophic floods), Mozambique remains one of the poorest countries of the world, with 54% of its population, mainly rural, living on less than US$1 per day. The World Economic Forum is an independent international organization committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas. Despite the political and economic advances seen in South Afric… Drought is not exceptional in the Horn of Africa, but 2011 was different: recurrent droughts were more frequent since the 2009 episode and plant regrowth was almost impossible. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. These statements underline the detrimental situation of women who play a key role in the country’s economy, especially in rural areas: 45% of Ethiopia’s workers who cultivate land are women [8]. 5. "In many southern African countries, the priority is maize. The Campaign for a Healthy CUNY. Therefore the risk of having idle lands would become real. The programme supported by the Fund consists of strengthening the institutional framework, carrying out research for the development of the relevant sectors, as well as extension activities in order to disseminate agricultural technologies and to train technicians. On the demand side, the trends include the continuing addition of 70 million people per year to the Earth’s population and the desire of some 4 billion people to move up the food chain and consume livestock products. In order to keep up with population growth, farmers will have to grow more wheat and maize over the next 40 years than was grown in the previous 500. 2008, 157-187. Overall the FAO estimates that total demand for food will rise by about 70% in the 44 years from 2006 to 2050, more than twice as much as demand for cereals. Biocarburants, bioenergie… Sur le chemin du green business. 10. View full-text Last Updated: 28 Sep 2020 Le Monde. A network of 150 stores supply seeds, fertilizers, and tools, and this saves the farmers travelling over long distances to buy the agricultural inputs they need. That is why the promoters of free trade demand the opening of countries to imports of food, considering that consumers worldwide have the right to purchase their foodstuffs at the lowest cost possible. While economic growth has been rather high over the past few years (6.2% in 2007, according to the Economic Report on Africa by the United Nations and the African Union), public aid from the rich countries was slumping (-8.4% in 2007, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); [17]). The 77 ACP countries, three-quarters of which are African countries, were concerned that such revision may change the rules of the game affording them the advantages indicated in the Lome and Cotonou agreements and concerning the export of their agricultural products: bananas, sugar, or cotton. The most emblematic development project is that of agricultural villages, the concept of which is inspired from that of the Israeli kibbutz. Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology (Rabat, Morocco), Bio-Euro-Latina (Paris, Madrid),Former Assistant Director-General of UNESCO (Paris), 51 Rue d’Alleray, Paris, 75015, France, You can also search for this author in Not only did the producers follow the NGO, but consumers did too. The role of ACDIC is to support and advise the organizations of producers, in order to design their production strategies. The chronically tight food supply the world is facing is driven by the cumulative effect of several well-established trends that affect global demand and supply. The increase in world population by 2050 will be around 30%, less than in the 40 years to 2010, when it rose by over 80%. Time. Agriculture, human security and peace. Regarding Africa, at the African Green Revolution Forum, held in Accra, Ghana, at the beginning of September 2010, and where several hundreds of ministers, entrepreneurs, representatives of agricultural organizations and international bodies, bankers, and experts were present, it was stated that there was a renewed interest in agriculture. Mali. Fifty kilometres from Wajir, in the city of Griftu, rainfall volume has been about 60% to 70% lower than the average for 1.5 years. Jacques Berthelot of the association Solidarité commented that 'The agricultural future of sub-Saharan Africa should be based on systems of agroecological production and agroforestry that do not need too many inputs.’ 'During Agro 2010, the big international congress of the European Society of Agronomy, almost all presentations were dealing with agroecology,’ confirmed Michel Griffon, deputy director of the French National Research Agency. The frequency and increased intensity of extreme climatic events, such as droughts and floods, have become additional challenges for global agriculture, which is already facing higher demand due to both population increase and new consumption habits of several developing countries. The country’s strategy is to support producers’ organizations, to enable landlocked production areas to have an easier access to markets, to organize commercialization networks and to set up infrastructures for transforming agricultural production, storing and conserving agrifood products. Over the period 2007–2010, prices were more volatile than they had been for decades. This aspect of funding agriculture is crucial, according to Monty Jones: 'When our governments do not increase funds allocated to agriculture, it implies that the support comes from external donors. The vaccination rate was 41% in the south of the country, compared with 88% (average) in the rest of the country. And in many countries, prime cropland is being lost to both industrial and residential construction and to the paving of land for roads, highways, and parking lots for fast-growing automobile fleets. Africa is grappling with higher than normal rates of food insecurity due to drought and flooding caused by El Nino. Le Monde/New York Times. We are targeting those which have been prioritized by the governments," Gallatova said. Agroecology means the reliance on biological processes, the association of crops, trees, and livestock husbandry in agroforestry, the use of crop diversity in order to ensure better protection against pests and the development of organic fertilizers rather than chemical ones. The regulation of the markets of agricultural commodities was also a key subject of the G20 meeting organized by France in Paris in February 2011 [1]. It is therefore obvious that the global supply of food is insufficient. This proposal was included in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA), launched by the United Nations and involving 1,300 scientists between 2001 and 2005, and coordinated by the CGIAR. It considers that the green revolution has been a failure, or at least it has done more environmental damage and brought fewer benefits than anyone expected [9]. Food insecurity is one way we can measure and assess the risk of hunger. The smallest rise in the cost of living can become a question of life and death. 13. In order to obtain the expected results, the state has set up, with the help of funding institutions like the World Bank, a range of incentive programmes such as the National Food Security Programme (PNSA). Olivier de Schutter, special rapporteur of the United Nations on the right to food, stated: 'If most poor countries are still very vulnerable, it is because their food security depends too much on food imports whose prices are increasingly high and volatile’. 2008, 17: 42-43. Cookies policy. 'Across Somalia, nearly half of the population, 3.7 million people, were in crisis, of whom an estimated 2.8 million people were in the south,’ the United Nations’ statement read. Worldwide governance must highlight sustainable agricultural development via the WTO’s negotiations on agriculture (Doha round), and the impact on developing countries of subsidies aimed at supporting exports of agricultural commodities. The report shows that the majority of Africans experiencing high levels of food insecurity, 107 out of 143 million, live in countries experiencing or affected by conflict. The government announced an 'action plan’ to cancel the rise in utility tariffs for the poorest, to reduce the price of rice and sugar, in addition to cancelling the 30% rise in bread prices forthwith. One of the Fund’s priorities is to allocate more money to short-cycle crops such as vegetables, maize, and rice, as well as to poultry and swine husbandry. The Africa Food Security Leadership Dialogue (AFSLD) is a joint Initiative by the African Union Commission (AUC) supported by the African Development Bank (AfDB), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and World Bank (WB) to catalyze actions and financing to help address Africa’s worsening food security … Days later, in Cameroon, a taxi drivers’ strike over fuel prices became a massive protest against soaring food prices, leaving around 20 people dead, while hundreds were arrested. But Jane Cocking, Oxfam’s humanitarian director, stated that 'this is a preventable disaster and solutions are possible’. For instance, Lagos, Nigeria’s commercial capital, with 15 million inhabitants, would be seriously affected; several districts of the city that are situated below sea level are already regularly flooded. Nomadic cattle herders had to seek for farther pastures, sometimes several hundred kilometers away. This looks paradoxical because the country receives an abundant and regular rainfall, and has about 12 million hectares of arable land of which only 2% are exploited. Consequently, 'every day of delay in assistance was literally a matter of life and death for children and their families in the famine-affected areas,’ said Mark Bowden, the United Nations humanitarian coordinator for Somalia. Brown LR: World facing huge new challenge on food front. They had, nevertheless, solutions in mind: limitation of the installation of sedentary people on land traditionally used by herders; convince livestock herders to sell their animals earlier, to reduce the size of their herds and flocks so as to make them more economically viable; and advocate for a diversification of their activities. In addition, in Europe and the United States, farmers receive subsidies from their respective governments. 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