doi: 10.1080/14647893.2011.561306, Coubard, O. We calculated a fixed-effect model to obtain a weighted mean effect size across studies (Level I). Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä University. Small improvements in expressive deficits and movement disorder symptoms were detected in favor of body psychotherapy. Psychol. 59, 12–19. Arts Therapies: A Research-Based Map of the Field. This is an indication of a publication bias. Twenty-one of these trials considered DMT interventions, whereas 20 trials considered dance interventions. We also checked whether observation rating scales were more frequently used in dance intervention studies than in DMT studies, which was not the case. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of dance movement therapy1(DMT) and dance interventions for psychological health outcomes. doi: 10.1016/j.aip.2012.03.008. The effects of DMT and dance interventions declined but remained significant. We decided to allocate the study to the DMT group, because of content-related similarities of the intervention to DMT. In addition, some high-quality qualitative research suggests that DMT and dance are beneficial supportive treatments to traditional care and have some specific advantages, such as the non-verbal approach, body-oriented treatment process, etc. A mixed-methods approach of the effects of dance movement therapy for breast cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. There are several study limitations, as well as strengths, that should be taken into account when making inferences on the bases of these findings. The distribution would be asymmetrical in case of a publication bias, because then small sample studies with positive effect sizes would be published, whereas small sample studies with no positive effects would remain unpublished (Lipsey and Wilson, 2001). J. Pers. J. Psychiatry 180, 51–60. distress arising from perceptions of bodily dysfunction) and vigor of women with breast cancer. The impact of the asylum process on mental health: a longitudinal study of unaccompanied refugee minors in Norway. In Baptista et al. Ph. doi: 10.1016/j.aip.2011.04.005, McNiff, S. (1993). °Koch, S., Kelbel, J., Kolter, A., Sattel, H., and Fuchs, T. (2017). 85, 27–35. If the intervention description suggested that predominantly typical tools of DMT were used (therapeutic use of dance/movement involving mirroring, conscious social interaction in movement, introspection and reflections on movement and body sensations; see also definition of DMT and description of DMT methods in Koch, 2019), we categorized the intervention as DMT. November 2013; The Arts in Psychotherapy 41(1) DOI: 10.1016/j.aip.2013.10.004. Arts Psychother. How many subjects does it take to do a regression analysis? We assume that DMT and dance interventions might influence quality of life on various dimensions, for example, movement might improve vitality and fitness, dance might foster joyful experiences (Koch et al., 2007), and interpersonal experiences might have a positive influence on social integration (Sandel et al., 1993). Med. In recent years, researchers have started to investigate whether the “mirroring” technique, proposed by dance movement therapist Marian Chace (Sandel et al., 1993), fosters empathy and enhances activity of mirror neurons in the brain (McGarry and Russo, 2011). 41, 445–457. Marian Chace Memorial Fund of the American Dance Therapy Association. Arts Psychother. At the 3-month follow-up, the corrected between-group effect sizes (ESs) were medium and in favor of the DMT + TAU group (d = 0.60–0.72). A higher number of participants would be needed to assess the differences between participants who either recover or improve during the intervention and also among those whose symptoms do not change. BMJ Open 7:e015157. Our meta-analysis is one of the first in the field to conduct sensitivity analysis, which is one approach to deepen the understanding about the sources of heterogeneity. (2017). The spectrum of research options in dance/movement therapy. (2000). doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004, Bergman, L. R., and Lundh, L.-G. (2015). This multicenter research investigates the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) on participants diagnosed with depression. The analyses yielded various results, but most effects remained constant or increased. Schmais, C. (1985). Argentine tango in Parkinson disease—a systematic review and meta-analysis. In 21.95% of the cases, the samples were smaller than N = 30, 34.15% were N = 30–50, 31.70% N = 50–100, and 12.20% were larger than N = 100. The present meta-analysis is an update of the meta-analysis published by Koch et al. The randomized controlled trial at hand investigated the effects of a 10-week manualized dance and movement therapy intervention on negative symptoms in participants with autism spectrum disorder. (2014) and detailed investigation of the primary trials. *Aweto, H. A., Owoeye, O. The effects on daily functioning and cortisol slope remained at 1-year follow-up. Payne, H., Koch, S., Tantia, J., and Fuchs, T. (2019). Finally, as in most therapeutic interventions, the relationship between the therapist and the participant is important (Grawe et al., 1994; Wampold and Irmel, 2015). With this paragraph, we hope to have illustrated the urgent need for mechanisms studies due to their intricate interdependency with outcome research. In the present study, in both the DMT + TAU and TAU-only groups, participants used antidepressants, and this can also play a role in the change patterns. Only three studies met the Cochrane review inclusion criteria, covering 147 participants in total. “Higher vs. lower risk studies” was a moderator of effects on a p < 0.1 level. Barba, H., Knill, M., and Fuchs, M. (1995). 2nd EdN. Epidemiol. DMT was found to have reduced symptoms of depression at the follow-up measure more so than standard care among adults with depression in two of the studies. doi: 10.1016/j.aip.2019.04.003, *Allet, L., Müller-Pinget, S., Punt, I., Edelsten, C., Ballif, A., Golay, A., et al. doi: 10.1177/1049732315589920. Some participants may have never had any formal training in "dance" as we know it, the difference here is that we encourage all movement as equal and respected. Muthén, L. K., and Muthén, B. O. Included studies per year with DMT or dance intervention. eds V. Karkou, S. Oliver, and S. Lykouris (London: Oxford University Press), 13–23. Figure 4. (2019). Dance as an intervention for people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Med. “Person-centered analysis: methods, applications, and implications for occupational health psychology,” in Research Methods in Occupational Health Psychology: Measurement, Design, and Data Analysis, eds R. R. Sinclair, M. Wang, and L. E. Tetrick (New York, NY: Routledge), 349–373. J. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(97)00056-1. New York, NY: Academic Press. Overall, there were more female than male participants (percentage female participants: M = 65.66%, SD = 27.65). Restless Legs Syndr. (2016). More high-quality primary studies need to be conducted and included into meta-analyses to expand the evidence. 7:CD004366. The participants in the DMT + TAU group were offered 20 DMT sessions twice a week for 10 weeks in addition to standard care. (2009). Dance movement therapy for dementia. Front. Rev. For example, if the intervention is conducted in a group setting, such mechanisms as cohesion, experience to be part of something larger, mutual trust, corrective emotional experiences, empowerment, mutual support, probing social roles, and enactive interpersonal learning are important (Schmais, 1985, 1998; Yalom, 1985; Rutan and Stone, 2001). doi: 10.1007/s12671-013-0212-z, *Duberg, A., Hagberg, L., Sunvisson, H., and Möller, M. (2013). Dis. Figures 2–4 show the means and error bars of outcome measures for the treatment and control groups at the three measurement points. (2017). Psychooncology 24, 1–10. However, since type of intervention was a significant source of heterogeneity, we explored trials on DMT and trials on dance interventions in two separate groups. The total sum score can range from 0 to 63. (2009). Connell, J., Barkham, M., Stiles, W. B., Twigg, E., Singleton, N., Evans, O., et al. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d5928, *Hildebrandt, M., Koch, S., and Fuchs, T. (2016). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher. Aging Neurosci. The non-significant results on motor skills confirm DMT as a psychotherapeutic intervention. Based on those findings, we expected that the reduction in depression and other psychological and physical symptoms among participants in the DMT treatment group would be significantly greater than the change in the control group. doi: 10.5539/jel.v5n4p159, Michalak, J., Heidenreich, T., Meibert, P., and Schulte, D. J. The same trend can be seen in Finland, where mental health problems have been the leading cause of work disability retirements since year 2000, and among the mental health problems, depression has been the most prevalent (Findikaattori, 20192). “We dance and find each other”: effects of dance/movement therapy on negative symptoms in autism spectrum disorder. Heterogeneity was caused, for example, by dissimilarities in methodological designs of studies, methods of interventions, and sample characteristics. Assoc. In addition, 13% of the participants in the control group reported attending other treatment groups, whereas only 3% of the participants in the DMT group reported attending other treatment groups. Results: The DMT group showed significant decreases in depression, loneliness, and negative mood (d = 0.33-0.42, p < .05) and improved daily functioning (d = 0.40, p < .01) and diurnal cortisol slope (d = 0.30, p < .01). We found one significant moderator, type of measurement, and two moderators that reached a p < 0.1 level, country of publication and methodological quality of study (risk of bias, randomization, sample size). In addition, there are mechanisms such as movement per se (arousal, hormonal changes, physiological changes through movement), dance per se (Jola and Calmeiro, 2017), as well as specific body feedback mechanisms related to distinct movement shape changes and qualities (Koch et al., 2007, 2014). At the same time, DMT can provide a therapeutic alliance in which the embodied relationships, symbolic unconscious material, and integration through reflection, movement, and creativity are central and focused upon (Karkou et al., 2019). Therefore, we conducted a regression analysis (independent variable: sample size, dependent variable: unweighted effect size). In the smaller cities, the randomization of the participants was not possible due to the small number of participants there; hence, those non-randomized participants were excluded from this research. Usually, the dependent variables were assessed with self-report questionnaires (e.g., HADS, BDI, BSI, STAXI). A controlled early group intervention study for unaccompanied minors: can expressive arts alleviate symptoms of trauma and enhance life satisfaction? An update. In the present research, we aimed to respond to this research gap by including a larger number of participants (N = 109) than had been done in previous studies utilizing randomized controlled trials in research designs. (2007). doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1009-6493.2009.34.015. The participants were also told that the DMT practices are safe, participation does not require physically demanding exercises, and the groups are facilitated by experienced DMT practitioners. Psychol. (2010). In their general meta-analysis on the effectiveness of DMT and dance interventions, they incorporated 23 primary studies published between 1995 and 2012. Hervey, L. W. (2000). Demographic characteristics did not seem to be related to the extent to which participants benefitted from the DMT group treatment. 8, 77–100. Cochrane Database Syst. Mplus User’s Guide, 7th Edn. Our analysis did not correct for multiple testing in order not to lose power. Indian J. Physiother. Especially when compared to meditation intervention, the effects declined to almost zero, which means that the two interventions are equally effective. There was a small negative gradient parameter that did not reach significance (β = −0.003, p = 0.147). Because we wanted to get a broad picture, we also included studies with interventions named “body psychotherapy” or “movement integration.” We decided to classify an intervention as “DMT intervention” if a dance movement therapist conducted the session. There was a tendency that more outliers, especially with large effect sizes, were studies with more severe methodological constraints. Columbia College, Chicago, IL, United States, 5. Columbia: American Dance Therapy Association. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Efficacy of caregiver-mediated joint engagement intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Most importantly, we found that the type of intervention (DMT vs. dance) was a significant moderator of results. Ther. BMC Geriatr. Hwang, H. H., Choi, Y. J., and Kim, B. R. (2010). J. Psychiatry. Altern. Care Cancer 22, 2241–2249. Dance is a universal language that every culture shares. Z., Jiao, Y., Knecht, A. M., Fanning, J., Awick, E. A., Chen, T., et al. 67, 267–277. Detection bias addresses blinding of the researcher, who assesses and analyses the results. Waltz-dancing in patients with chronic heart failure: a new form of exercise training. Interoceptive awareness is important for relapse prevention: perceptions of women who received mindful body-awareness in substance use disorder treatment. 20, 377–384. Of the demographic characteristics considered, only the use of antidepressant medication was related to lower scores on the BDI-I and CORE-OM measures and also to higher age. Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research. doi: 10.1177/1362361314522353, Koch, S. C., Morlinghaus, K., and Fuchs, T. (2007). In the present study, we also included studies with considerable methodological constraints (e.g., small N, no randomization, high dropout, deficient report of implementation or statistics, conflicts of interest). 1, 1–6. A Cochrane review of the effects of DMT on depression compared the effects of DMT with no treatment and with standard care, psychological interventions, drug treatment, and other physical interventions (Meekums et al., 2015). Am. They state that mechanisms of body–mind integration improve self-awareness. Health Res. Dance/movement therapy is more effective than previously reported. If the interaction between group × time was statistically significant, the group differences were tested for the intervention period (pretreatment to posttreatment measurement) and follow-up period (posttreatment to follow-up measurement) separately. J. From Level II to Level I effect sizes across studies were synthesized. Regression analyses revealed that no metric variable alone reached significance as a moderator of effect sizes (see Table 4 below).